top of page

The Unsung Heroes of the Sea - Oysters and Their Vital Role in Ocean Filtration

In the vast expanses of our oceans, oysters quietly perform an indispensable role - serving as nature's filtration systems and guardians of marine ecosystems. Oysters are more than just culinary delicacies. Their pivotal job in purifying water, preserving habitats, and supporting biodiversity prove that they are ecological powerhouses able to feed off of algae in the water, like a clean up crew. Their ability to filter vast amounts of water not only enhances water quality, but also contributes to the overall health and resilience of coastal ecosystems, highlighting their irreplaceable ecological significance.


The future of these valuable beings hangs in the balance is imperiled by the dual threats of climate change and overfishing. Rising sea temperatures, unsustainable fishing practices, and habitat destruction further exacerbate the vulnerability of oyster habitats, pushing them towards the brink of decline. Safeguarding oyster populations is becoming increasingly imperative. It is crucial to recognize and address the threats confronting their existence; this is necessary to ensure the continued vitality and performance of these unsung heroes of the sea.


Defining Oysters and Their Filtration Process


For those who need a refresh, oysters are the family name for salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or saltwater environments. They are highly efficient filter feeders, which means they feed off of nutrients in the water, as well as algae and phytoplankton. The dirtier the seawater, the more the oysters can eat. Oysters can filter as much as 200 liters (50 gallons) of water per day. Their gills are lined with microstructures called cilia that perform like strainers, separating solid and semi-solid components from the water. The bulk includes plankton and excess nutrients from human pollution and waste, and microorganisms. Anything that the oysters cannot digest become pseudofaeces, which come out in forms of biodeposits. 


Microorganisms will turn biodeposits, which are trapped pollutants within the feces, into neutral nitrogen gas, which can be used by other organisms or become released into the atmosphere. This is the Nitrogen Cycle, and our oysters play a key role in the formation of nitrogen gas in our oceans. The nitrogen cycle regulates the availability of nitrogen, a vital nutrient, in ecosystems, thereby sustaining the growth of plants and supporting the entire food web. The nitrogen gas produced through this process not only benefits marine life, but also plays a crucial role in global atmospheric chemistry and climate regulation.


The Effects On Our Oceans + Marine Ecosystems


These hard-working creatures provide various benefits for our oceanic ecosystems, through filtration and nitrogen production. These jobs allow excess nutrients to be removed from the water, helping prevent devastating algal blooms and dead zones. These phenomena have been critically impacting our reefs throughout the world. Oysters also help maintain clean water, and improve light penetration and clarity in areas with larger populations. One study performed by the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science in 2018 compared the water quality + cleanliness of a tank containing 10 Eastern Oysters and a tank containing none. Within one hour, the tank with the oysters became fully cleaned, with no discoloration and harmful bacteria that can degrade a marine environment. The other tank remained a rusty yellow-brown color.


In addition to filter feeding, oysters also provide habitat, food, and health for a large range of other animals and organisms, including octopuses, crabs, fish, snails, coral and sponges. Oysters serve as barriers to storms and tides, preventing erosion and protecting estuaries, reefs, and shoreline ecosystems. Their calcium carbonate shells contribute to stabilizing the seabed and fostering the growth of diverse marine life. This showcases their crucial role in maintaining coastal biodiversity and resilience against extreme weather events and man-made activity.


Looking into The Future of Oysters: Is There Hope?


With success comes failure, and oysters have faced a number of threats and declines due to global warming, habitat destruction and human-centered excursions. Rising carbon dioxide levels have become a great risk to not only oysters, but to millions of other marine and land species that have adapted over thousands of years to these existing conditions. Excess carbon dioxide can reduce pH levels in our oceans – also known as ocean acidification. This process lowers the availability of carbonate ions necessary for the formation and maintenance of oyster shells, and without the levels needed, oyster shells will dissolve. Ocean acidification combined with overexploitation of these populations due to their culinary appeal put oysters at risk of decline if this is not handled within the next few decades. Already, it is estimated  that 85% of the world’s oyster reefs have already been lost. Many wild oyster populations are now considered “functionally extinct” because of severe habitat loss. 


In order to help this crucial species, many communities and businesses around the world have been working with conservation and restoration efforts to combat oyster decline. According to The Nature Conservancy, scientists in Port Phillip Bay in Australia are already working to solve this problem: “We’re re-establishing oyster and mussel reefs right across Australia, working with the local businesses, communities and researchers so that nature and people can once again enjoy the many benefits that oyster reef bring”. Other organizations including NOAA Fisheries,  The Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Department of Environmental Protection, as well as national universities, governmental programs and non-profit organizations are dedicated to oyster reef rehabilitation and conservation. They are working day and night to bring back our oyster populations, especially in areas affected by dead zones or high-traffic zones. Some strategies include relocating the species or creating safe havens. 


Local communities and neighborhoods living along the shore, and even you, can make a large impact on oyster populations in the coming decades. This can be done through oyster recycling, which is an eco-friendly solution that will help build new oyster reefs for oyster restoration projects. If you are a fan of these well-known delicacies in the summer-time or on vacation, make sure to eat oysters out at restaurants or bars that offer shell recycling, or find a local drop off site near you if you farm them yourself. Every action counts!



 

Works Cited


Asha, R. M., et al. “A Novel Approach Effect of Ocean Acidification on Oysters.” Materials Today: Proceedings, 31 Jan. 2023. ScienceDirect, A novel approach effect of ocean acidification on oysters - ScienceDirect, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2023.01.194.


Bricker, Suzanne. “Water Cleaning Capacity of Oysters Could Mean Extra Income for Chesapeake Bay Growers (Video).” NCCOS Coastal Science Website, NOAA / NCCOS, 2 Mar. 2020, https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/news/water-cleaning-c


Environment by Impact [@environment]. (2024, March 6). “Did you know that 

oysters are incredibly efficient at filtering and cleaning water?” [Photograph]. Instagram.


Koenig, Erin. “Can Clams and Oysters Help Clean up Waterways?” OCEANUS | the Journey of Our Ocean Planet, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 22 Jan. 2018, www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/can-clams-and-oysters-help-clean-up-waterways/.


“Ocean’s Clean-up Crew – How Do Oysters Filter Water?” Oyster Heaven, Oyster Heaven, 3 Oct. 2023, oysterheaven.org/how-oysters-filter-water/.


Stories, Ocean. “Oysters: Nature’s Water Filters.” The Nature Conservancy Australia, The Nature Conservancy, 2023, https://www.natureaustralia.org.au/what-we-do/our-priorities/oceans/ocean-stories/oysters-filter-water/.


Comments


bottom of page